Diet For Weight Loss Glossary

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Diet For Weight Loss Glossary S

 



Saccharin - An artificial sweetener that is used to replace sugar. It is supposedly sweeter than sugar and has zero calories. However, unlike sugar, it can have an unpleasant after-taste.

Salt - This comes in a variety of forms and as well as occurring naturally, can be made when an acid and alkali are combined. The most common of these as far as our body requirements are concerned is the white crystalline salt chemically known as Sodium chloride (NaCl) that is essential for life although can be dangerous in high doses. We normally ingest this in the form of table salt, of which the recommended daily intake for the average person should be no more than 6 grams.

Satiety - The physical feeling of being sated or full after eating.

Saturated fat - These are fat molecules with carbon chains that cannot absorb any more hydrogen atoms and are solid at room temperature. They can be found in large quantities in foods like butter and lard. A diet high in saturated fat can increase the risk of heart related diseases.

Scleroprotein - A fibrous protein that is insoluble in water and resistant to digestive enzymes. Collagen and elastin are two examples.

Scurvy - A disorder characterized by swollen and bleeding gums caused by vitamin C deficiency.

Secondary diabetes mellitus - This is rare form of diabetes mellitus brought about by certain medications that affect the body's use of insulin.

Secondary hypertension - Hypertension or elevated blood pressure caused by another condition.

Sedentary - Inactive or sitting around.

Selenium - An important gray crystalline element that is a component of an antioxidant enzyme that is important for respiration in the tissues.

Serine - An amino acid that is present in many proteins and is non essential since it can be manufactured in the body from glycine or threonine.

Serotonin - A neurotransmitter that functions in various parts of the body and acts as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells. Serotonin is used in the regulation of mood, appetite, learning and sleep.

Serum - The yellow coloured non-cellular portion of the blood that separates from blood clots during coagulation.

Serum cholesterol - The amount of cholesterol in the blood.

Serum estrone - A steroid hormone that is one of the female estrogens.

Set point theory - A theory that everyone has a natural weight called the 'set point' that the body will return to whenever possible. If a person eats more than normal, their metabolism will quicken and if they eat less than normal, their metabolism will slow down.

Shock - In medical terms, this is a state of dangerously low blood pressure when less blood is delivered to the tissues and hence less oxygen. Failure of the circulatory system can occur when trying to maintain an adequate blood flow.

Shock - In medicine, shock is a critical condition brought on by a sudden drop in blood flow through the body. There is failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate blood flow.

Side Effect - An undesirable secondary effect that can occur with many drugs or medical treatments.

Sideroblastosis - A condition where the blood contains an unusually high number of sideroblasts, or red blood cells containing iron granules.

Silicon - An abundant non metallic element that is important for tissue strength. Silicon gives strength to the body tissues including the bones, cartilage, blood vessels and skin.

Skin - The thin outer covering of the body that protects us from injury and infection caused by external forces. It also helps with water storage and the regulation of body temperature.

Sleep - A state of rest or the body's rest cycle where consciousness and awareness is lost for a period of time and heart rate and respiration slow down.

Sleep apnea - A sleep disorder in which breathing stops briefly while you sleep. The condition is intermittent and is caused by obstruction of the airways.

Small Bowel - This is another name for the small intestine where digestion is completed.

Small bowel obstruction - An obstruction or blockage of the small intestine

Sodium - An alkaline metal that in combination with chlorine produces sodium chloride (NaCL) commonly known as salt which helps regulate the body's fluid balance.

Soluble fibre - Found in foods including fruit, vegetables and oats, this fibre is not digested but absorbs water and swell up to form a gel like substance.

Standard Diet - A basic diet used in most hospitals; can be modified texture, kcal, nutrient content.

Stanol - A compound that reduces the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood.

Steroid - A fat soluble compound with a specific carbon ring structure that has a variety of uses, medicinal and otherwise. Examples of steroids include cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol and dexamethasone an anti inflammatory drug.

Sterol - An unsaturated steroid alcohol found in the oils of fruits, vegetables, grains and soybeans.

Stomach - The digestive organ located in the upper abdomen in which the first part of digestion occurs. The upper part of the stomach is connected to the esophagus and the lower part is connected to the small intestine.

Stomach Banding - The surgical reduction of the stomach by fitting a band around the top portion of the stomach to slow down food consumption and help with obesity.

Strain - An injury to the muscles or tendons resulting from overuse or trauma.

Stress - A state of nervousness or unease felt by the body's reaction to particular situations.

Subcutaneous body fat - Fat that is found under the skin.

Sucrose - A white crystalline disaccharide of fructose and glucose that is commonly known as table sugar. It can be found in many plants especially sugar cane and sugar beets.

Sulphur - A non metallic reactive element that when combined with certain other elements in amino acid chains, protect cells and helps the body resist bacterial infections.

Surgery - A branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of diseases and conditions which require operative procedures. Such treatment is performed by surgeons.

Synaesthesia - A neurological condition where one type of stimulation induces another. For example a colour is visualized when hearing a particular word or sound.

Syndrome - A group of signs or symptoms that occur together and which replicate the presence of a particular disease or condition.

Synthesis - The combination of different entities to make something which is new or different. For example, it can be the means of producing a particular compound from other compounds or elements in one or more chemical reactions.

Systemic - Relating to or affecting the entire body. Diabetes is an example of a systemic disease that can affect the whole body.
 

A Glossary of diet and weight loss terms can be found in alphabetic order below.

A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M

N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

 


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